Niklas Vogel

Crashing the Party – Vulnerabilities in RPKI Relying Party Software

Niklas Vogel
Contributors: Donika Mirdita, Haya Schulmann, Michael Waidner

10 min read


RPKI adoption is on the rise. And that's a good thing. But as the number of networks deploying RPKI grows, so does the potential impact of vulnerabilities in its implementation. CURE is a novel fuzzing tool developed by ATHENE researchers to test vulnerabilities in RPKI Replying Party software.

Routers use the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) to exchange information about how to reach prefixes in their networks. BGP routers can announce any prefix – also those that their networks do not legitimately own. When networks accept such bogus BGP announcements they route traffic to the hijacking network instead of to the legitimate target prefix.

Prefix hijacks are common in BGP routing, due to human error or as deliberate attacks by adversarial actors. Hijacks can be used, e.g., to distribute malicious code, to steal cryptocurrency, to poison caches of Domain Name System (DNS) servers, or to trick a Certificate Authority into issuing fraudulent certificates.

Over the past 10 years, prefix hijacks have become more refined and targeted. Hijacks, due to erroneous configurations or malicious attacks, can have devastating consequences for Internet users and services. To prevent hijacks the IETF designed and standardised the Resource Public Key Infrastructure (RPKI).

RPKI prevents hijacks

RPKI authenticates BGP prefixes, allowing networks to filter bogus announcements and hence prevent hijacks. Public RPKI repositories, rooted at the five Regional Internet Registries (AFRINIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, RIPE NCC), distribute information about prefix ownerships with cryptographically signed objects, called Route Origin Authorisations (ROAs), that bind network prefixes with their owner ASN.

Networks use Relying Party (RP) software to fetch these ROAs from the public RPKI repositories and validate them. Therefore, Relying Parties act as middleware between the RPKI repositories and the routers, minimising the load on routers, which only need to periodically retrieve the validated RPKI material from the RP caches and use it for making routing decisions.

In the last five years, the deployment of RPKI gained traction. Now RPKI covers almost 50% of all Internet prefixes (compared to 6.5% in 2017). Many large providers and operators are using ROAs, such as Amazon Web Services who issued ROAs for their prefixes following the AWS Route 53 hijack in 2018. Route origin validation is enforced by around 37.8% of ASes (compared to 600 ASes in 2017), including large Internet Service Providers and operators, such as Level 3, Cogent, Deutsche Telekom, and Zayo.

The impact of RPKI on Internet routing is already visible. When Pakistan hijacked Youtube in 2008, Youtube was not reachable on the global Internet. In contrast, when Twitter prefixes were hijacked by the Russian telecom RTComm in March 2022, instead of traffic to Twitter being disrupted globally, due to Twitter’s rather recent adoption of RPKI, the effects of the hijack were experienced only in limited parts of the Internet. The hijacked prefixes were covered by valid ROAs. Thus any AS that supported RPKI validation discarded the bogus announcement and their clients remained unaffected.

However, as adoption increases, so too does the impact that any inconsistency, vulnerability or misconfiguration in RPKI might have on the stability of the Internet, as more networks would be affected. The potential damage can have significant consequences on the economy and society, since almost everything we do depends on the correct functioning of the Internet.

In 2023, we performed an extensive security analysis of all popular relying party implementations on the market. We found severe vulnerabilities and demonstrated how network adversaries can exploit them for a range of attacks, including Denial of Service kill switches, cache poisoning, and path traversal attacks.

We also identified inconsistencies in support of RFC standard recommendations across the implementations. All these issues directly affect the integrity and correctness of the data routers rely on.

Why troubleshooting relying parties is hard

Despite their central role in the RPKI infrastructure, prior to our study there has been no comprehensive evaluation of relying party software. When looking into the inner workings of relying parties, this is not surprising. Relying party implementations are complex, since they support a wide range of functionalities necessary for interacting with the RPKI repositories and validating the cryptographic RPKI material. This complexity makes it almost impossible to use traditional vulnerability analysis tools, like fuzzers.

CURE-ing the hurdles towards fuzzing relying parties

To address the existing gap in vulnerability analysis for relying parties, our team at the National Research Center for Applied Cybersecurity ATHENE developed a novel fuzzing tool which we named CURE (Comprehensively Usable Relying Party Evaluator).

CURE combines the functionalities of a fuzzer (creating mutated objects, executing the target software, analysing the output) with the RPKI functionality of creating, signing and inter-linking RPKI objects. With CURE, we implemented our own optimised version of a fully functional RPKI repository, which allows us to construct valid RPKI repository structures around the RPKI objects we want to test, and interact with the relying parties.

Severe vulnerabilities and inconsistencies across the relying party implementations

In our research we found 18 severe vulnerabilities. Five CVEs have been assigned, one of them was rated critical with a score of 9.3. The vulnerabilities affect all popular relying party implementations, and range between crashes, violation of standard behaviour and even severe bugs that allow a network adversary to completely take over an RPKI hierarchy, injecting its own trust anchor.

Path Traversal/Cache Poisoning

The most severe vulnerability that we discovered with CURE was path traversal in Routinator, a software package used by 69.9% of the RPKI validating networks. The relying parties universally use the name of objects as storage locations on disc. In the vulnerable Routinator instances, an attacker can exploit the lack of user-input sanitisation and choose names containing a path traversal code "../" in order to place files with arbitrary content anywhere on the disk of the server running the RP.

In older Routinator versions, this ability could even be exploited to place a new attacker-controlled trust anchor in the relying party. Placing a new trust anchor in Routinator would allow an attacker to silently circumvent all RPKI protection and get arbitrary RPKI objects accepted, exposing the routers to poisoning of their routing table and to customised BGP hijacks.

In newer Routinator versions, the path traversal vulnerability persisted, but the new handling of trust anchors neutralised the ability to insert a malicious one. After our disclosure, the path traversal problem was quickly fixed and a CVE with a critical score was assigned (CVE-2023-39916).

Relying party crashes

The majority of the vulnerabilities that we found were relying party crashes due to insufficient error handling. Denial of service vulnerabilities are particularly severe, as routers rely on the availability of the relying parties for RPKI validation; if a relying party crashes, the router will eventually flush its RPKI cache and accept all BGP announcements, including hijacking attempts. While most crashes we found were parsing errors, e.g., crashing if the data of a field was longer than indicated by its length value, we also found internal processing errors that lead to failure. All crashes we found have been quickly fixed by the developers after our disclosure, with the exception of OctoRPKI.

RFC inconsistencies

During our analysis we discovered several instances of implementations that do not conform to the RPKI standard. For example, OctoRPKI does not check the session_id parameter in the notification and snapshot files; therefore it can parse files with inconsistent IDs. This error exposes the relying party to replay attacks. Another example of lack of adherence to RFC requirements in OctoRPKI is that it serves files from repositories with expired CRLs or CRLs that are missing mandatory extensions. On the other side of the spectrum we have Fort, which enforces certificate validation much more strictly than the standard requires, as a result discarding even valid certificates which use the issuer name type OrganisationName. Such RFC incompliance issues can lead to silent downgrade of RPKI protection; every software component and communication protocol is working correctly, but the invisible processing errors silently remove ROAs from router view.

VRP discrepancies on the Internet

We also found that the Validated ROA Payloads (VRPs) output of relying parties differs across the implementations, even when the exact same repository content is served. We made sure to avoid connection discrepancies by running all four major relying parties at the same time on the same network. Our data showed considerable differences in the output offered by each relying party.

In June 2023, we saw the following VRP output values: rpki-client (441,777), Routinator (441,770), Fort (435,002) and OctoRPKI (434,074). The different VRP entries indicate processing inconsistencies across all the relying parties. We ran CURE on the RPKI objects to diagnose the issues.

According to our analysis:

  • OctoRPKI discards all VRP prefixes with a length larger than the maximum allowed prefix in BGP, /24 for IPv4 and /48 for IPv6. This resulted in the discarding of at least 1,744 prefixes from its VRP cache.
  • Fort discards 6,405 VRPs issued by Amazon due to a peculiarly strict certificate validation logic. In Fort, when the certificates use the option OrganisationName attribute field instead of CommonName or SerialNumber, the repository is discarded.
  • Amazon updated their objects following our notification.

Our analysis highlights that in reality processing inconsistencies across relying parties are common, and not only as a result of connectivity failures, but also due to different processing logic in each relying party implementation.


Our research demonstrates that more research and work are needed to make RPKI implementations production grade ready. We found severe vulnerabilities in major RPKI implementations, even in basic modules such as data parsing. Relying parties that implemented their own object parsings, e.g., Routinator and OctoRPKI, exhibited more errors in their processing as opposed to implementations like Fort or rpki-client, which use open source and long established libraries like OpenSSL. While a diverse landscape of different implementations in many languages is certainly desirable, these libraries must be painstakingly tested before incorporating them in critical network security applications.

The vulnerabilities that lead to silent downgrade of protection and even to the complete shut down of the relying parties software, and the inconsistencies across the relying party implementations are detrimental to RPKI correctness and to inter-domain routing stability. The vulnerabilities we found in our research emphasise the need for a testing tool to enable the relying party developers to systematically and in an automated way analyse the vulnerabilities in relying party software and fix them. We therefore developed CURE and made it available on GitHub for public use, to facilitate vulnerability testing of RPKI software.

It is imperative for RPKI software and all its modules to become more resilient to attacks that can compromise the RPKI data completeness and correctness from the viewpoint of a router. There is also a need for consensus across the implementations on the set of the downloaded ROAs from the RPKI repositories.

This article is based on the research paper "The CURE to Vulnerabilities in RPKI Validation", by Donika Mirdita, Haya Schulmann, Niklas Vogel, and Michael Waidner, that will appear at NDSS Symposium 2024.


About the author

Niklas Vogel Based in Frankfurt, Germany

Niklas Vogel is a Cybersecurity researcher for the German Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research ATHENE and part of the Cybersecurity faculty at Goethe University Frankfurt. His research interests are mostly focussed on routing security, including protocols like DNS, and RPKI.

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